Tuesday, June 30, 2020
The Life History Of Marcus Garvey Research Assignment (Essay Sample) Content: Marcus GarveyNameInstitutionBACKGROUND INFORMATION.Marcus Garvey was born in Jamaica, he was an orator for the Pan-Africanism and Black Nationalism movements, to which end he founded the African Communities League and Universal Negro Improvement Association Garvey advanced a Pan-African philosophy which inspired a global mass movement, known as Garveyism. Social activist Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born on August 17, 1887, in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Self-educated, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association, dedicated to promoting African-Americans and resettlement in Africa. He then eventually inspired others, from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement.While in the United States he launched several businesses to promote a separate black nation. After he was convicted of mail fraud Garvey was deported back to Jamaica, in Africa he continued his work for black repatriation.He was the last of 11 children born to Marcus Garvey, Sr. and Sar ah Jane Richards. Marcus father was a stone mason, and his mother a domestic worker and farmer. Garvey, Sr. was a great influence on Marcus, who once described him as "severe, firm, determined, bold, and strong, refusing to yield even to superior forces if he believed he was right." His father was known to own a library, where young Garvey learned to read.In 1907, he took part in an unsuccessful printer's strike and the experience made him to have a passion for political activism. After three years, he traveled throughout Central America working as an newspaper editor and writing about the exploitation of migrant workers in the plantations. Garvey attended Birkbeck College (University of London) and worked for the African Times and Orient Review, which was advocating for Pan-African nationalism.FOUNDING THE UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATIONIn 1912 Marcus returned to Jamaica and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) with the goal of uniting all of Africa n diaspora with the main aim of "establish a country and absolute government of their own." After corresponding with Booker T. Washington, who was the American educator and founder of Tuskegee Institute, Garvey then traveled to the United States in 1916 to raise funds for a similar aim in Jamaica. Garvwy then settled in New York City and formed a UNIA chapter in Harlem to promote a separatist philosophy of social, political, and economic freedom for blacks. In 1918, Garvey began publishing the widely distributed newspaper Negro World to convey his message.By 1919, Marcus Garvey and UNIA had launched the Black Star Line, a shipping company that would establish trade and commerce between Africans in America, the Caribbean, South and Central America, Canada and Africa. At the same time, Garvey started the Negros Factories Association, a series of companies that would manufacture marketable commodities in every big industrial center in the Western hemisphere and Africa.In August 1920, U NIA claimed 4 million members and held its first International Convention at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Before a crowd of 25,000 people from all over world, Marcus Garvey spoke of having pride in African history and culture. Many found his words inspiring, but not all. Some established black leaders found his separatist philosophy ill-conceived. W.E.B. Du Bois, a prominent black leader and officer of the N.A.A.C.P. called Garvey, "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America." Garvey felt Du Bois was an agent of the white elite.CHARGES AND LOSS OF AUTHORITY.In 1922, Marcus Garvey and three other UNIA officials were charged with mail fraud involving the Black Star Line. The trial records indicate several improprieties oc...
Thursday, May 28, 2020
Scientists may soon have the ability to bring a species back from the dead. You dont have to worry we wont have a T-rex roaming the earth, not for lack of trying but because there isnt enough viable DNA to make it happen. The question is not on whether we can resurrect a species, but whether if we should if possible. Reproductive cloning is the idea of creating an animal that is genetically identical to a donor animal through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In reproductive cloning, the newly created embryo is placed back into the uterine environment where it can implant and develop. Using Reproductive cloning to bring animals back would do more harm than good. I say this because it could lead to several huge problems. Some of these problems could consist of bringing a deadly pathogen or retrovirus back to life which caused the animals death in the first place, causing other species to lead to extinction, taking attention elsewhere, and where would we put them. But this also has some great advantages if successful which I will get into later in the paper. So lets get started. The reason why Reproductive cloning is now possible is that of a system called CRISPR CAS-9. According to Beth Shapiro, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a gene editing tool that uses protei ns (CAS-9) to cut a little bit of DNA and stick a new bit of DNA in there and the DNA heals itself back up and you just replaced a gene1. With this, you can basically edit a current species like the elephant in order to bring back the wooly mammoth. There are still some complications about the procedure itself that scientists are working on. Like they need to make sure that the hybrid cells that they created could be used to make specialized tissues and would be able to grow in an artificial womb or try to implant it into an elephant. And then they would make sure that it would survive when they added more DNA and more DNA until they get a full implantable embryo. Bringing a species back to life would be a big mistake, especially if a deadly pathogen or retrovirus comes along with it. We really dont know what would happen if one day the science community were to successfully bring a deadly top of the food chain species back to life. It could possibly start an outbreak of a virus or pathogen that we would have never seen before. So many would most likely get affected without a cure in sight. This itself would take a lot of time and money just to find a cure that works and then have to mass produce the cure to stop the outbreak. All of this would have to be done when we havent even done this with other existing viruses and diseases. It took almost two centuries for the world to eradicate smallpox. How much time do you think it would take to eradicate a virus or pathogen that we know nothing about? A further argument for against reproductive cloning would be that it could cause other species to go extinct. After a mass extinction event, new speci es evolve and fill ecological niches. This is called Adaptive radiation under Natural Selection. If you were to reintroduce another species with the same niche as another it could cause that species to go instinct. This is due to the competitive exclusion principle. This tells us that two species cant have the same niche in a habitat and stably coexist. Thats because species with identical niches also have identical needs, which means they would compete for precisely the same resources and lead to one to go extinct. So, would it be right to bring a deadly species back if it will make an already existing species go extinct or even make itself go extinct in the long run? Spending the already limited resources on reproductive cloning could lead to net biodiversity loss by taking attention elsewhere. The relative cost as opposed to benefit for biodiversity is essential to the debate surrounding reproductive cloning. Assuming species are resurrected to be released into former habitats, the cost of reproductive cloning includes the process of producing initial founder populations, translocating individuals, then monitoring and managing new wild populations2. If maintenance funds are re-directed from living to resurrected species, there is a risk of perverse outcomes whereby net biodiversity might decrease because of reproductive cloning. Why would we take money away from endangered species on the verge of going extinct to species that were already dead and brought back? If we were going to bring back a dead species where would we put them? Would we keep them in a zoo? That doesnt sound like a very exciting existence for that animal since we are doing it for the animal and not for us. There is a great risk for reproductive cloning, we would bring back a species from the dead but if we fail to resurrect their ecology there going to be extinct once more. But there is a way around this. According to Douglas McCauley, there are three ways that to restore the functioning of once-extinct species. These ways are (i)select target species from guilds with low functional redundancy; (ii) concentrate on species that went extinct recently rather than older extinctions; and (iii) only work with species that can be restored to levels of abundance that meaningfully restore ecological function. On the other side reproductive cloning is not only about animals it can be used on humans as well. Religious and other opponents of this technology are saying that this process disrupts nature because procreation is something that shouldnt be tampered with. They feel that interfering with how nature work would have a domino effect on the human race. Reproductive cloning can be considered unethical and against gods wishes. Many people believe that because clones were created by man, they will be unable to feel and empathize. The creation of life by God is described in the Book of Genesis. The natural law ensures the continuity of life. Cloning is the transfer of genetic material by unnatural and artificial means. In other words, man would be playing god, but we dont have the power to predict all the consequences of assuming that role. Aside from being morally wrong, this interference can lead to a host of problems that society isnt prepared to handle. There are many more arguments aga inst reproductive cloning, but this is a brief report of the main arguments. When thinking about cloning children designed and replicated to the parents wishes, consider the book My Sisters Keeper in which one of the children is the product of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and is born for the sole purpose of being a bone marrow plant for her older sister. Know try to imagine being the child only being born to save the existing child and not for the reason of wanting a child in general but bluntly speaking basically she was born for spare parts for the first child. I couldnt imagine how that would feel. Even though there are many negatives to reproductive cloning there are also many positives such as, reproductive cloning could offer insights into evolution and other natural resources that may be currently unavailable to us. Reproductive cloning could be a big step forward for genetic engineering. It could help restore threatened or damaged ecosystems with help of now-extinct species. Extinct species could be brought back from the dead and carry no deadly pathogens or retroviruses at all. Or maybe even one they could even use reproductive cloning to bring back species such as a dog that may have passed away. But there are always negatives to that as well. Many people love their pets too much that they get devastated when theirs passes away. Reproductive cloning gives them the chance to have another pet thats genetically identical to their deceased pet. However, this doesnt guarantee that the cloned animal will look like the donor or even will survive birth with the death rate of cloning mammals 95%. And also, it is very expensive up to 100,000$. Most likely most adults dont have this kind of extra cash laying around except for the wealthy so all this could be is just an idea. The two biggest positives that can come from reproductive cloning is that continuing this research could lead to reproducing more viable organs and this could help infertile parents that now have a chance of being able to have kids of their own. Those who want to have twins will also be able to make that wish come true. It can also be useful to lesbian and gay couples, who wont need donor sperm and donor eggs, respectively, to have their own kids as well. The people that can benefit most from these organs are people who are on the organ dono r list waiting for their chance to receive their desired organ. This could be a huge breakthrough, but this could be very expensive. In conclusion, Cloning is a type of asexual reproduction. A child created by cloning would be an exact replica of an existing or deceased person. If you cloned yourself the clone would not be like your sister, or brother, it would be an exact copy of you. A majority of people do not believe that reproductive cloning is ethical. Most advocates of human cloning also advocate for genetic modification of the human species. The technologies needed for reproductive cloning are not up to safety standards. Many countries have banned research on reproductive cloning. This means that the technologies for reproductive cloning are not going to be improved quickly. There is still a lot of research that needs to be done on reproductive cloning not only for humans but species as well and we need to discuss all of the pros and cons before we do something that we might not be able to turn back from.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Farmingville Case Study PT 1 1. Alien in one definition is: Ã¢â¬Å"Too different from something to be acceptable or suitable,Ã¢â¬ and Illegal in one definition is Ã¢â¬Å"Not allowed by the law.Ã¢â¬ (Mirriam-Webster Dictionary) The words Ã¢â¬ËAlienÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËIllegalÃ¢â¬â¢ have inherent negative connotations. A person does not need to know the intimate or factual circumstances associated with those words to understand their symbolism. When those words are used to label the social group of undocumented Latino day laborers the inherent reaction is to see them in a negative way. The individuals become a stigmatized group. The people against undocumented immigrants in Farmingville saw the Latinos through the lens of the stigmatized group Ã¢â¬Å"illegal aliens.Ã¢â¬ They thus becameÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The people from the baby boomer generation are all nearing, if not already in, retirement and old age. Over the next 20 years the amount of elderly people of retirement age is supposed to incr ease somewhere around 50%. Because of this imbalance there will be a lot of money being directed toward taking care of the baby boomer generation which may lead to decreased funding for younger generations. The baby boomers will all retire around the same time, leaving jobs unfilled. There may also be troubles in the housing market as there may not be enough young people to buy all the houses they sell. The number of immigrants in America are increasing and replacing the baby boomers in being the dominating group in our population. 6. Immigrants are the inevitable solution because they will pick up the economic slack that will be left after the baby boomers retire. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that they are the best solution, ideally our native born citizens would be able to maintain our economy, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not realistic. Better to have immigrants contributing and helping the economy than sink into a depression. 7. Browning is the phenomena of the huge increase of Latino immigrants. The amount of Latino immigrants are outnumbering the amount of white and black people. In Farmingville there were so many immigrants they were living 10-20 to a house, could be seen on street corners waiting for work and loitering at places like 7/11. In short
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Paper 2 Nowadays, an increasing number of international students come to the State to pursue higher degrees. International students contribute significantly to the diversity of the campus, as well as helping to increase schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ funding. However, lots of international students have to experience a tough period in the State, due to culture difference and the language barrier. People might notice that most of the international students are shy and donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk too much in the class. But people might not be aware of the kinds of insights thoughts international students possess, along with the lack of confidence with which they struggle. In this paper, I try to summarize and explain the main difficulties faced byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Third, language barrier can be a huge problem for international students, especially for those whose first language is not English. Although they have learned English for a while and got good scores in TOEFL exams, they still need one or two years to get used to a English-speaking environment. Although most of international students experience similar difficulties, different groups of students face different main problems. Students from totally different political system might experience more severe culture difference, for example, Chinese students. Fan use her own experience to explain how she struggled between Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ . I honestly understand this difficulty. As he mentioned in the article, Ã¢â¬Å"In China, I is always subordinated to We Ã¢â¬â be it the working class, the Party, the country, or some other collective bodyÃ¢â¬ (Shen, P2). I am also a Chinese and educated by Chinese schools for 12 years. In our culture, modest and low-key are very valuable personalities. A person who refers to him or herself with the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ can be considered selish and individualistic. However, in the State, people donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to hind themselves and can just express themselv es. I am surprised about this culture and very excited to embrace this difference. I want to be myself and make my own voice! Not like Fan, although I struggle with this culture difference, I am happy to change. For example, at the beginning, during group discussion, I like to start with Ã¢â¬Å"we thinkÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Cherub Ravoori. Eng 102- 050. Daniel Listoe. Draft 1, 10- x-15 Ã¢â¬Å"American Immigration EntropyÃ¢â¬ Stars and stripes, the land of opportunity and the nation of immigrants. The United States of America, one of the largest and most influential countries today, is and always has been a grand attraction to people all over the world. America has become home to people from all corners on this planet; especially to Europeans seeking wealth and religious freedom, to several African slaves brought to America against their will from the 17th to 19th centuries; and today to the major immigrant groups in America: Asians and Latin Americans. My family and I emigrated from Hyderabad, Pakistan to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America in 2014. We fortunately managed to receive our Green cards and Social Security after much toil and expense. It is a big question to me to and several Americans as to why people do not immigrate to America simply legally as we did and reside in America without worry. More than 12 million people in US arenÃ¢â¬â¢t fortunate as we were in successfully finding legal permanent residence (Immigration policy center). AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Immigration System has several problems because of which several immigrants and the country itself is suffering. The American Immigration System has several problems and fails to meet the demands of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s globalized society. The fault of the US government is not just its
This lesson comes from my 11th grade Modern American History class. It is a requirement for all students. Typically, my classes are comprised of 18-25 students, broken into five sections, two of which are usually honors level. Although my district has an inclusion policy, there is generally one class that is Ã¢â¬Å"lowerÃ¢â¬ than the others and includes more identified students. This lesson will be designed to fit into any class with little modifications necessary. This lesson will come on the heels of a chapter on 1950s America. My goal is to help students to better understand the contrast between the Communist Soviet Union and Capitalist United States. While we will have spent quite a bit of time discussing the differences between the two, I really want to have the students explore, using their own inquisitiveness, to better understand just how different they were. This lesson and unit are extremely important because we still face challenges today when dealing with both Russia and China and students need to understand the roots of these challenges. Confirmation Inquiry After reading the ten pillars of Communism from MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Communist Manifesto and the Bill of Rights, students will respond to the question Ã¢â¬Å"In what ways do MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas conflict with the Bill of Rights?Ã¢â¬ They will then pick one of ten pillars and explain how it could directly impact their lives if implemented in our society. This would help to re-inforce the discussed differences between the two systems ofShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. 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Question: Discuss about the Narrative Therapy. Answer: Narrative therapy Narrative therapy can be described as a type of counseling which sees individuals as different from their mental issues. It creates some distance between the client and the problem to see if it helps or protects them more than it hurts them. The perspective gives the client the feeling of having the power to change their behavior and patterns, and their story of life so that they can reflect on who they are, the things they can do and what they are meant to do, separating them from their issues(Russell Cohn, 2012, p. 144). The following essay explains the intervention when needed in mental health practice while digging deep in therapeutic strengths and limitations. Strengths and Limitations The first advantage of narrative therapy is that it does not blame or judge the client and divides the issue from the individual. It is an empowering tool as many therapy clients view themselves as being broken or mentally disordered and the only person that can fix them is the therapist. It is common for clients to see themselves as weak or damages because of depression, unresolved grief or struggles in relationships(Metcalf, 2017, p. 93). In narrative therapy, the therapist works in partnership with the client to help him heal in a respectful and non-judgmental manner. The second advantage is that it regards the client as the expert of their lives and not the therapist. As the client learns to embrace the challenges and rebuild the story that is in question, they start to reconstruct it. They start using an alternative of creating a winning account. It is a writer who revises their novel that had not been accepted by the publisher because of mistakes in the storyline(Dryden Reeves, 2014, p. 101). He rewrites the tale and bases it on the exciting parts of the original one, and it becomes a bestseller. The next advantage is that it gives the client the courage to revisit their past and view their story more positively. For instance, people who have been struggling with anxiety for long have always described themselves as being anxious people. When that becomes their story, they view themselves as being unable to handle challenges or weak. It is similar to those who judge themselves according to their past mistakes as they see themselves as being losers. There are others who look at their history and view themselves as hopeless. The stories, in this case, put a negative attitude in their lives(Langer Lietz, 2015, p. 49). Once they change the story in their minds, the stories become their strengths rather than their weaknesses. The other strength is that it helps the individual to view their issues from a proper perspective. The objective helps them in considering good interpretations in their story. A client emphasizes on the things that support a story he is telling. For instance, an adult who sees himself as a loser will give a story that is in support of the negative attitude. He will not include the successes in his life. The therapist will them ask him about the omitted exceptions(Mozdzierz, et al., 2014, p. 52). As a result, strengths and skills of the client will be revealed. Client can now include the positive stuff into the story However, each type of psychotherapy has its limitations. As compared to other forms of therapy, narrative therapy is not very traditional. As a result, there is not sufficient research to support it as being useful. In simpler terms, it has not been studied in detail. Some people also feel uncomfortable being in control of the process. This may be a problem for a client who is articulate in particular(Holloway Wheeler, 2013, p. 44). A client with a less intellectual mind may also have difficulty in dealing with this type of therapy. Racial, Cultural, Religious and Gender Sensitivity Needed Ethnic minorities encounter a significant obstacle to mental health care which rules out enough progress when healing and brings about incongruities in quality life expectancy as compared to white people. Although racial health disparity is complicated and needs multiple systems to transform completely, therapists have a unique position the issue. The ongoing efforts of therapists to have quality care provided to people of Black and Latin people are considered to have an impact on ending problems in mental health. One of the ways of correcting this is by acknowledging and assuring there is humanity in the Latin and Black people. Therapists should also view their own racial biases, identity, and prejudices(Linnell, 2010, p. 119). Acting as agents of change in sociality is also a way to tackle issues with such clients. In narrative therapy, cultural sensitivity helps the therapist to tackle the clients problems. It is based on the therapists way of understanding the clients background and what they believe in. The therapist may include ideas that are culturally sensitive to different peoples opinions and attitudes. It helps the therapist by gaining and maintaining cultural competence, that is, being able to notice and understand their culture and how it affects their relationship with the client, and then have a response to a culture that is not the same as their own(Duvall Be?res, 2011, p. 91). The understanding is based on factors like gender, religion, culture, and race. The practices aid the clients by helping them feel comfortable, thus resulting in active treatment. The study has shown positive effects, outlining instances of how therapists can be competent as they interact with individuals from different backgrounds. For example, a study showed that therapy with Latin clients as not valid if the individual thought the therapist was distant. Therefore, disclosing some personal information may help the client be able to connect with the therapist. Other research revealed that some behaviors like using familiar language might play a significant role in different cultures(Guilfoyle, 2014, p. 37). Trying not to use the approach may alienate the client. A therapist that is culturally sensitive should follow guidelines for how to work with people from different backgrounds and understand that sexual, gender, religious or racial identities work with the clients beliefs and behavior. The expected goals for the client and the therapist are seen progress and good progress in spite of cultural differences and boundaries(Marsten, et al., 2016, p. 100). Therapists that are successful in integrating cultural sensitivity to the treatment can communicate with clients from unlike backgrounds because they have the required skills and knowledge. Most therapists believe that varying the approach from one individual to another is more efficient than using the same treatment for every person. Although deviating from the standard path to therapy is typical to most of them, they should also follow their professional guidelines on ethics like when giving personal information. It is believed that showing a person that their beliefs and culture are respected can have positive outcomes(Mary Allen, 2012, p. 93). However, some mental health professionals may argue that stressing the variables between people can be offensive to some clients, leading to a broken therapeutic relationship. Future Implications A Strong argument is being made for efforts of studying narrative therapy in the future. Research has shown that some specific approaches in subsequent treatment are more important than others. However, there is still room for more research to be conducted to understand the main factors contributing to the approach(Dickerson, 2016, p. 84). But it is safe to say that the little research that has been done has proved that narrative therapy is adequate, and there is more room for further study. As past exploration has shown, narrative therapy has mind frame that has a purpose and a deliberate discourse method that helps individuals to think about their issues in unique ways. By studying subsequent treatment in detail, more data will be created to show how it can treat clients, but also include therapeutic effects that will widen ways like relationships the research can also facilitate how one understands interactions between the therapist and the client. Narrative therapy can bolster specific aspects of a therapeutic relationship in a way that is not yet in research. Examples may include reducing the problems to discuss, making the client feel less defective and building self-esteem(Flaskas, et al., 2015, p. 64). Also, connecting narrative therapy with other types of treatment can give a standard for other health professionals to look for its therapeutic qualities. It plainly appears that narrative therapy has not been discussed in detail in the research literature. It has therefore been proposed that there is a need for evaluation of essential qualities of subsequent treatment. Furthermore, it is recommended that narrative practices can be the initial step in the approach for several reasons: The first goal is that there is research that already exists that has, to some degree, studied narrative therapy use. Secondly, some of the studies state that sequential therapy has effects on issues and clients. Thirdly, it is an essential approach to treatment. Research that highlights the therapeutic qualities of sequential therapy can be of benefit in not only it but would also implicate the acceptance of the type of treatment(Rose, 2012, p. 53). For example, research on subsequent treatment can elaborate on the good qualities that are associated with putting much thought to the approach. It is also essential to put more effort to divide narrative therapy into more specific groups to accurately evaluate the quality of the treatment. As research has shown, the study efforts have researched subsequent therapy in general. Even if useful, they have failed to focus on the quality models that may be helpful to clients(Be?res, 2014., p. 89). Therefore, more investigation needs to be done in narrative therapy. Narrative therapy research has witnessed various obstacles. However, the barriers have invited researchers to work on narrative principles as they try to evolve the methodology. The efforts usually get involved with explorations through research. Research projects can be incorporated in a qualitative manner that shows the themes that are of good quality(White, 2016, pp. 184-185). Emergent issues in studies can put aside to develop an evident theory about the outcome that is positive. In conclusion, things that happen in a persons life are seen as stories in narrative therapy. Some of the stories seem to affect the person that others. The ones that affect the person come from adverse events and can mold the individuals identity. With this effect, therapists see a persons life as filled with possibilities that are yet to be seen. The professional does not act as the expert because every person is the expert of his own life. The correct environment for mental health can be when therapy engages the minority in their context. Anything that works against that will not work efficiently. While narrative therapists usually consult with the clients about the treatment and other practices, more studies need to be conducted to document the accounts in a research format method. Such projects can be able to help in narrative therapy by making sure that the therapist approach does not take over from reports of what would have been helpful in the process of treatment. Current li terature has revealed that narrative treatment forms some effects on clients. Having the ability to understand the implications is an excellent research goal for narrative therapists and other professionals. References Be?res, L., 2014.. The narrative practitioner. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Dickerson, V., 2016. Poststructural and Narrative Thinking in Family Therapy. Cham : Springer International Publishing. Dryden, W. Reeves, A., 2014. The handbook of individual therapy. Los Angeles: SAGE. Duvall, J. Be?res, L., 2011. 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